PD Dr. Wolff Schlotz


Providing advice on methodological issues, particularly in the following areas:

  • Study design
  • Data analysis
  • Psychometrics

Additional functions

  • Data protection coordinator
  • Ombudsperson

    Research interests

    • Psychometrics
    • Ambulatory assessment methodology
    • Longitudinal data analysis
    • Personality and aesthetics
    • Daily life stress
    • Stress reactivity


      Academic Education

      2014PD, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
      2014Dr. habil., Psychology, University of Regensburg / Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
      2004Dr.rer.nat., Psychobiology, University of Trier, Germany
      2000Dipl.-Psych., Psychology, University of Trier, Germany

      Professional Experience

      Since 2013Statistical and Methodological Consultant at the Max-Planck-Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
      2011-2013Lecturer at the Institute of Experimental Psychology, University of Regensburg, Germany
      2007-2011Lecturer in Health Psychology at the School of Psychology, University of Southampton
      2005-2007Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, Southampton
      2000-2005Research Fellow at the Department of Psychology, University of Trier, Germany


      Journal articles

      Greb, F., Schlotz, W., & Steffens, J. (2017). Personal and situational influences on the functions of music listening. Psychology of Music. Advance online publication.  doi:10.1177/0305735617724883

      Herrera, R., Berger, U., Genuneit, J., Gerlich, J., Nowak, D., Schlotz, W., Vogelberg, C., von Mutius, E., Weinmayr, G., Windstetter, D., Weiglt, M., & Radon, K. (2017). Chronic Stress in Young German Adults: Who Is Affected? A Prospective Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14 (11), 1325.  doi:10.3390/ijerph14111325

      Kennedy, M., Kreppner, J., Knights, N., Kumsta, R., Maughan, B., Golm, D., Hill, J., Rutter, M. Schlotz, W., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2017). Adult disinhibited social engagement in adoptees exposed to extreme institutional deprivation: examination of its clinical status and functional impact. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 211 (5), 289-295.  doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.117.200618

      Kumsta, R.*, Schlotz, W.*, Golm, D., Moser, D., Kennedy, M., Knights, N., Kreppner, J., Maughan, B., Rutter, M., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2017). HPA axis dysregulation in adult adoptees twenty years after severe institutional deprivation in childhood. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 86, 196-202.  doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.09.021

      Merk, J., Schlotz, W., & Falter, T. (2017). The Motivational Value Systems Questionnaire (MVSQ): Psychometric Analysis Using a Forced Choice Thurstonian IRT Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1626.  doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01626

      Powell, D. J., Liossi, C., Schlotz, W., & Moss-Morris, R. (2017). Tracking daily fatigue fluctuations in multiple sclerosis: ecological momentary assessment provides unique insights. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 40 (5), 772-783. doi:10.1007/s10865-017-9840-4

      Reichert, M., Tost, H., Reinhard, I., Schlotz, W., Zipf, A., Salize, H. J., Meyer-Lindenberg, A. & Ebner-Priemer, U. W. (2017). Exercise versus Nonexercise Activity: E-diaries Unravel Distinct Effects on Mood. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 49 (4), 763-773. doi:10.1249/mss.0000000000001149

      Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S., Kennedy, M., Kumsta, R., Knights, N., Golm, D., Rutter, M., Maughan, B., Schlotz, W., & Kreppner, J. (2017). Child-to-adult neurodevelopmental and mental health trajectories after early life deprivation: the young adult follow-up of the longitudinal English and Romanian Adoptees study. The Lancet, 389(10078), 1539-1548.  doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30045-4

      Kennedy, M., Kreppner, J., Knights, N., Kumsta, R., Maughan, B., Golm, D., Rutter, M., Schlotz, W., &  Sonuga‐Barke, E. J. S. (2016). Early severe institutional deprivation is associated with a persistent variant of adult attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, developmental continuities and life circumstances in the English and Romanian Adoptees study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 57 (10), 1113-1125. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12576

      Menninghaus, W., Bohrn, I. C., Knoop, C. A., Kotz, S. A., Schlotz, W., & Jacobs, A. M. (2015). Rhetorical features facilitate prosodic processing while handicapping ease of semantic comprehension. Cognition, 143(0), 48-60. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2015.05.026

      Powell, D. J. H., Moss-Morris, R., Liossi, C., & Schlotz, W. (2015). Circadian cortisol and fatigue severity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 56, 120-131. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.03.010

      Skoluda, N., Strahler, J., Schlotz, W., Niederberger, L., Marques, S., Fischer, S., Thoma, M. V., Spoerri, C., Ehlert, U., & Nater, U. M. (2015). Intra-individual psychological and physiological responses to acute laboratory stressors of different intensity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 51, 227-236. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.10.002

      Schlotz, W., & Powell, D.J.H. (2014). Ambulatory assessment in neuropsychology: Applications in Multiple Sclerosis research. Zeitschrift für Neuropsychologie, 25 (4), 239-251. doi:10.1024/1016-264X/a000140

      Schlotz, W., Godfrey, K. M., & Phillips, D. I. (2014). Prenatal Origins of Temperament: Fetal Growth, Brain Structure, and Inhibitory Control in Adolescence. PLoS ONE, 9 (5), e96715. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096715

      Powell, D.J.H., Liossi, C., Moss-Morris, R., & Schlotz, W. (2013). Unstimulated cortisol secretory activity in everyday life and its relationship with fatigue and chronic fatigue syndrome: A systematic review and subset meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38 (11), 2405-2422. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.07.004

      Schlotz, W., Phillips, D. I. W., & the Hertfordshire Cohort Study Group (2013). Birth weight and perceived stress reactivity in older age. Stress and Health, 29 (1), 56-63. doi:10.1002/smi.2425

      Banaschewski, T., Jennen-Steinmetz, C., Brandeis, D., Buitelaar, J. K., Kuntsi, J., Poustka, L., Sergeant, J. A., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Frazier-Wood, A. C., Albrecht, B., Chen, W., Uebel, H., Schlotz, W., van der Meere, J. J., Gill, M., Manor, I., Miranda, A., Mulas, F., Oades, R. D., Roeyers, H., Rothenberger, A., Steinhausen, H.-C., Faraone, S. V., & Asherson, P. (2012). Neuropsychological correlates of emotional lability in children with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53 (11), 1139-1148. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02596.x

      Kudielka, B., Gierens, A., Hellhammer, D.H., Wüst, S., & Schlotz, W. (2012). Salivary Cortisol in Ambulatory Assessment – Some Dos, Some Don’ts, Some Open Questions. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74 (4), 418-431. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31825434c7

      Powell, D.J. & Schlotz, W. (2012). Daily life stress and the cortisol awakening response: Testing the anticipation hypothesis. PLoS ONE, 7 (12), e52067. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052067 

      Rutter, M., Kumsta, R., Schlotz, W., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2012). Longitudinal Studies Using a “Natural Experiment” Design: The Case of Adoptees From Romanian Institutions. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(8), 762-770. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2012.05.011

      Teasdale, E., Yardley, L., Schlotz, W., & Michie, S. (2012). The importance of coping appraisal in behavioural responses to pandemic flu. British Journal of Health Psychology, 17 (1), 44-59. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8287.2011.02017.x

      Lawrence W., Schlotz W., Crozier S., Skinner T.C., Haslam C., Robinson S., Inskip H., Cooper C., Barker M. and The Food Choice Group (2011). Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment. Appetite, 56 (1), 46-52. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.11.003

      Routledge, C., Arndt, J., Wildschut, T., Sedikides, C., Hart, C.M., Juhl, J., Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M., & Schlotz, W. (2011). The Past Makes the Present Meaningful: Nostalgia as an Existential Resource. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101 (3), 638-652. doi:10.1037/a0024292

      Schlotz, W., Hammerfald, K., Ehlert, U., & Gaab, J. (2011). Individual differences in the cortisol response to stress in young healthy men: Testing the roles of perceived stress reactivity and threat appraisal using multiphase latent growth curve modeling. Biological Psychology, 87 (2), 257-264. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.03.005

      Schlotz, W., Yim, I.S., Zoccola, P.M., Jansen, L., & Schulz, P. (2011). The Perceived Stress Reactivity Scale: Measurement invariance, stability and validity in three countries. Psychological Assessment, 23(1), 80-94. doi:10.1037/a0021148.

      Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Kumsta, R., Schlotz, W., Lasky-Su, J., Marco, R., Miranda, A., Mulas, F., Oades, R. D., Banaschewski, T., Mueller, U., Andreou, P., Christiansen, H., Gabriels, I., Uebel, H., Kuntsi, J., Franke, B., Buitelaar, J., Ebstein, R., Gill, M., Anney, R., Roeyers, H., Rothenberger, A., Sergeant, J., Steinhausen, H. C., Asherson, P., & Faraone, S. V. (2011). A Functional Variant of the Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) Moderates Impulsive Choice in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Boys and Siblings. Biological Psychiatry, 70(3), 230-236. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.01.040

      Yardley, L., Miller, S., Schlotz, W., & Little, P. (2011). Evaluation of a Web-based Intervention to Promote Hand Hygiene: Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 13 (4), e107. doi:10.2196/jmir.1963

      Kumsta, R., Stevens, S., Brookes, K., Schlotz, W., Castle, J., Beckett, C., Kreppner, J., Rutter, M., & Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2010). 5HTT genotype moderates the influence of early institutional deprivation on emotional problems in adolescence: evidence from the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 755-762. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02249.x

      Preuss, D., Schoofs, D., Schlotz, W., & Wolf, O. T. (2010). The stressed student: Influence of written examinations and oral presentations on salivary cortisol concentrations in university students. Stress, 13 (3), 221-229. doi:10.3109/10253890903277579

      Schlotz, W., Jones, A., Phillips, D.I.W., Gale, C.R., Robinson, S.M., & Godfrey, K. (2010). Lower maternal folate status in early pregnancy is associated with childhood hyperactivity and peer problems in offspring. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51, 594-602. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2009.02182.x

      Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Schlotz, W., & Kreppner, J. (2010). Differentiating developmental trajectories for conduct, emotion, and peer problems following early deprivation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 75 (1), 102-124. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5834.2010.00552.x

      Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Schlotz, W., & Rutter, M. (2010). Physical growth and maturation following early severe institutional deprivation: Do they mediate specific psychopathological effects? Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 75 (1), 143-166. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5834.2010.00554.x

      Castle, J., Groothues, C., Beckett, C., Colvert, E., Hawkins, A., Kreppner, J., Kumsta, R., Schlotz, W., Sonuga-Barke, E., Stevens, S., Rutter, M. (2009). Parents' evaluation of adoption success: A follow-up study of intercountry and domestic adoptions. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79, 522-531. doi:10.1037/a0017262

      Marco, R., Miranda, A., Schlotz, W., Melia, A., Mulligan, A., Muller, U., Andreou, P., Butler, L., Christiansen, H., Gabriels, I., Medad, S., Albrecht, B., Uebel, H., Asherson, P., Banaschewski, T., Gill, M., Kuntsi, J., Mulas, F., Oades, R., Roeyers, H., Steinhausen, H. C., Rothenberger, A., Faraone, S. V., & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. (2009). Delay and reward choice in ADHD: An experimental test of the role of delay aversion. Neuropsychology, 23, 367-380. doi:10.1037/a0014914

      Rowold, J., & Schlotz, W. (2009). Transformational and transactional leadership and followers’ chronic stress. Leadership Review, 9, 35-48.

      Schlotz, W., & Phillips, D.I.W. (2009). Fetal origins of mental health: Evidence and mechanisms. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23, 905-916. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2009.02.001

      Ebner-Priemer, U.W., Kuo, J., Schlotz, W., Kleindienst, N., Rosenthal, M.Z., Detterer, L., Linehan, M.M., Bohus, M. (2008). Distress and affective dysregulation in patients with borderline personality disorder: A psychophysiological ambulatory monitoring study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196, 314-320.  doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31816a493f

      Gale, C.R., Robinson, S.M., Godfrey, K.M., Law, C.M., Schlotz, W., O’Callaghan, F.J. (2008). Oily fish intake during pregnancy - association with lower hyperactivity but not with higher full-scale IQ in offspring. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1061-1068. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01908.x

      Hewig, J.*, Schlotz, W.*, Gerhards, F., Breitenstein, C., Lürken, A., & Naumann, E. (2008). Associations of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) with cortical activation asymmetry during the course of an exam stress period. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33, 83-91. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.10.004

      Schlotz, W., Jones, A., Godfrey, K.M., & Phillips, D.I.W. (2008). Effortful control mediates associations of fetal growth with hyperactivity and behavioural problems in 7- to 9-year-old children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1228-1236. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01946.x

      Schlotz, W., Kumsta, R., Layes, I., Entringer, S., Jones, A., & Wüst, S. (2008). Covariance between psychological and endocrine responses to pharmacological challenge and psychosocial stress: a question of timing. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 787-796. doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181810658

      Stiglmayr, C.E., Ebner-Priemer, U.W., Bretz, J., Behm, R., Mohse, M., Lammers, C.-H., Angelescou, I., Schmahl, C., Schlotz, W., Kleindienst, N., & Bohus, M. (2008). Dissociative symptoms are positively related to stress in borderline personality disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 117, 139-147. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2007.01126.x

      Hellhammer, J., Fries, E., Schweisthal, O.W., Schlotz, W., Stone, A.A., & Hagemann, D. (2007). Several daily measurements are necessary to reliably assess the cortisol rise after awakening: State- and trait components. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 80-86. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2006.10.005

      Nater, U., Rohleder, N., Schlotz, W., Ehlert, U., & Kirschbaum, C. (2007). Determinants of the diurnal course of salivary alpha-amylase. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 392-401.   doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.02.007

      Schlotz, W., Ambery, P., Syddall H.E., Crozier, S., Aihie Sayer, A., Cooper, C., & Phillips, D.I.W. (2007). Specific associations of insulin resistance with health related quality of life in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Quality of Life Research, 16, 429-436. doi:10.1007/s11136-006-9129-5

      Schlotz, W., Jones, A., Phillips, N.M.M., Godfrey, K.M., & Phillips, D.I.W. (2007). Size at birth and motor activity during stress in children aged 7 to 9 years. Pediatrics, 120, e1237-e1244. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-3277

      Wilhelm, I., Born, J., Kudielka, B.M., Schlotz, W., & Wüst, S. (2007). Is the cortisol awakening rise a response to awakening? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32, 358-366. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2007.01.008

      Federenko, I.S., Schlotz, W., Kirschbaum, C., Hellhammer, D.H., Bartels, M., & Wüst, S. (2006). The heritability of perceived stress. Psychological Medicine, 36, 375-386. doi:10.1017/S0033291705006616

      Federenko, I.S., Wolf, J.M., Wüst, S., Schlotz, W., Hellhammer, J., Kudielka, B.M., Kirschbaum, C., Hellhammer, D.H., & Wadhwa, P.D. (2006). Parity does not alter baseline or stimulated activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in women. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 703-711. doi:10.1002/dev.20187

      Schlotz, W., Schulz, P., Hellhammer, J., Stone, A.A., & Hellhammer, D.H. (2006). Trait anxiety moderates the impact of performance pressure on salivary cortisol in everyday life. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31, 459-472. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.11.003

      Schulz, P., Jansen, L., & Schlotz, W. (2005). Stressreaktivität: Theoretisches Konzept und Messung. Diagnostica, 51, 124-133. doi:10.1026/0012-1924.51.3.124

      Wüst, S., Entringer, S., Federenko, I. S., Schlotz, W., & Hellhammer, D. H. (2005). Birth weight is associated with salivary cortisol responses to psychosocial stress in adult life. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30 (6), 591-598. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2005.01.008

      Becker, P., Schulz, P., & Schlotz, W. (2004). Persönlichkeit, chronischer Stress und körperliche Gesundheit. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 12, 11-23. doi:10.1026/0943-8149.12.1.11

      Hellhammer, J., Schlotz, W., Stone, A.A., Pirke, K.M., & Hellhammer, D. (2004). Allostatic load, perceived stress, and health: a prospective study in two age groups. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 8-13. doi:10.1196/annals.1314.002

      Schlotz, W., Hellhammer, J., Schulz, P., & Stone, A.A. (2004). Perceived work overload and chronic worrying predict weekend-weekday differences in the cortisol awakening response. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 207-214. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000116715.78238.56

      Schulz, P., Hellhammer, J., & Schlotz, W. (2003). Arbeitsstress, sozialer Stress und Schlafqualität: Differentielle Effekte unter Berücksichtigung von Alter, Besorgnisneigung und Gesundheit. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 11, 1-9.  doi:10.1026//0943-8149.11.1.1

      Schulz, P., Schlotz, W., & Hellhammer, J. (2003). Zur Bestimmung von Alterseffekten bei der subjektiven Beurteilung des Schlafes. Zeitschrift für Gerontopsychologie und ‑psychiatrie, 16, 63-75. doi:10.1024//1011-6877.16.2.63

      Schulz, P., Schlotz, W., Wolf, J., & Wüst, S. (2002). Geschlechtsunterschiede bei stressbezogenen Variablen: Der Einfluss der Neigung zur Besorgnis. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 23, 305-326. doi:10.1024//0170-1789.23.3.305

      Schulz, P., & Schlotz, W. (1999). Das Trierer Inventar zur Erfassung von chronischem Streß (TICS): Skalenkonstruktion, teststatistische Überprüfung und Validierung der Skala Arbeitsüberlastung. Diagnostica, 45, 8-19.  doi:10.1026//0012-1924.45.1.8

      Book sections

      Schlotz, W. (2013). Stress reactivity. In M.D. Gellman & R.J. Turner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine (pp. 1891-1894). New York: Springer.

      Schlotz, W. (2012). Fetal effects. In R.J.R. Levesque (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Adolescence (pp. 1022-1033). New York: Springer.

      Schlotz, W. (2011). Ambulatory psychoneuroendocrinology: Assessing salivary cortisol and other hormones in daily life. In M.R. Mehl & T.S. Conner (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods for Studying Daily Life (pp. 193-209). New York: Guilford.

      Schlotz, W. (2008). TICS: Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress. In J. Bengel, M. Wirtz & C. Zwingmann (Eds.), Diagnostische Verfahren in der Rehabilitation (S. 139-143), Göttingen: Hogrefe.

      Gollwitzer, M., & Schlotz, W. (2003). Das "Trierer Inventar zur Lehrveranstaltungsevaluation" (TRIL): Entwicklung und erste testtheoretische Erprobungen. In G. Krampen & H. Zayer (Hrsg.), Psychologiedidaktik und Evaluation IV (S. 114-128). Bonn: Deutscher Psychologen Verlag.


      Rutter, M., Sonuga-Barke, E., Beckett, C., Castle, J., Kreppner, J., Kumsta, R., Schlotz, W., Stevens, S.E., & Bell, C.A. (2010). Deprivation-specific psychological patterns: Effects of nstitutional deprivation (Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), Vol. 75(1)). Malden, MA: WileyBlackwell.

      Schlotz, W. (2005). Kovariation psychoendokriner Stressindikatoren: Analyse von Cortisol und Stresserleben mit Multilevel-Modellen. Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag wvb.

      Schulz, P., Schlotz, W., & Becker, P. (2004). Das Trierer Inventar zum chronischen Stress – Handanweisung. Göttingen: Hogrefe.