Behavioral and neural foundations of aesthetic experience
This research area takes a neurobiological view of "the aesthetic granularity problem.” What are the "atoms of aesthetic experience," as viewed from human neuroscience? Experiencing a single musical note or one word is arguably too small a unit of analysis; experiencing an entire symphony or whole novel is arguably too big. What constitutes an "aesthetic primitive," from a brain’s-eye-view? A second focus concerns the variability of experience - despite compelling neurobiological universals or shared properties. Here we seek to identify the principles (universal? innate?) and parameters (culture-specific and contingent? acquired?) of aesthetic experience.
We can easily say if a singer sounds in tune or out of tune, we can also guess the emotional state of a person by listening to his/her voice. More generally, we are used to “categorize” or “interpret” the acoustical content of vocalizations. However, this simple observation leads to several questions: Which acoustical features define a specific category? How do we process the acoustical information? What about complex signals such as operatic voices or choir performances?
Individuals can be aesthetically engaged by objects from widely different visual aesthetic domains, such as paintings, mountain vistas, or buildings. The goal of this project is to understand whether aesthetic appreciation of different visual domains relies on the same underlying processes. Behaviorally, we find that the degree of "shared taste" across people differs systematically by domain: preferences for faces and landscapes contain a high proportion of shared taste, while preferences for architecture and artworks, both artifacts of human culture, reflect strong individual differences.
How does the brain support aesthetic experiences with visual stimuli such as artwork, landscapes, architecture or dance? Recent work in our group suggests that finding a painting to be aesthetically moving involves a change away from the typical behavior of large-scale brain networks. In particular, the default-mode network (DMN), a brain network that is thought to support aspects of internally-directed thought, is typically suppressed when visual networks are active, and visa versa.
As suggested by the many singing contests and music programs in the media, the singing voice attracts ample attention. Recent studies showed that lay and expert listeners share similar definitions of what is “correct” when listening to untrained (Larrouy-Maestri et al., 2015) and trained singers (Larrouy-Maestri et al., 2017). The definition of pitch accuracy (i.e., correctness) relies on specific acoustic features that can be measured. However, we usually don’t attend opera or pop concerts to evaluate the correctness of a performance but to enjoy it. This project aims to investigate what “preference” means when listening to sung performances, and to explore the roots of such aesthetic experience.
Adult liking judgments for visual scenes are strongly influenced by the semantic content of images, more so than by lower-level visual features (e.g. the presence of specific colors or line types). This results in a strong degree of shared taste across different real-world scenes but highly idiosyncratic liking judgments for abstract images such as fractals and kaleidoscopic images that lack semantic content (Vessel & Rubin, 2010). This project seeks to understand how this adult-like pattern of shared taste emerges over the course of development.